mayisoft 深评:颠覆续航性能 解析固态电池前?- 车友 - 浏阳?/title> <meta name="keywords" content="鍥烘€?鍓嶆櫙,鐢垫睜"> <meta name="description" content="娴忛槼缃戠敱娴忛槼甯傚銆佸競鏀垮簻涓诲姙銆佹祻闃冲競濮斿浼犻儴涓荤銆佺渷濮斿浼犻儴鎵瑰噯寮€鍔炵殑娴忛槼鏂伴椈缃戠珯銆傛祻闃崇綉鏈夋祻闃宠鍧涳紝娴忛槼鏃ユ姤鐢靛瓙鐗堬紝娴忔渤鏃惰瘎锛屾祻闃虫棩鎶ュ皬璁拌€呯綉绛夊涓綉绔欙紝鏄祻闃虫柊闂婚棬鎴风綉绔欍€傚湪绗簩灞婁腑鍥戒簰鑱旂綉鍝佺墝澶у璇勯€変腑锛岃崳鑾风敱涓浗缃戠粶浼犳挱鑱旂洘璇勫嚭鐨勩€婁腑鍥藉湴鏂圭綉绔欐渶浣虫湰鍦熶紶鎾姏鍝佺墝澶у銆嬨€?> <link href="http://wait-wind.com/statics/css/nyreset.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" /> <link href="http://wait-wind.com/statics/css/show_blue.css" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" /> <script type="text/javascript" src="http://wait-wind.com/statics/js/jquery.min.js"></script> <script type="text/javascript" src="http://wait-wind.com/statics/js/jquery.sgallery.js"></script> <script type="text/javascript" src="http://wait-wind.com/statics/js/search_common.js"></script> </head> <h1><a href="http://wait-wind.com/"></a></h1> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="body-top"> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="content"> <div class="w300 lh24 fl" id="Clock"> <script language="javascript" type="text/javascript" src="http://wait-wind.com/js/time.js"></script> </div> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="w200 lh24 fl"> 新闻热线?731-83830000 </div> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="w100 lh24 fl"> </div> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="w300 lh24 fl"> <SCRIPT language=javascript> function g(formname) { var url = "http://www.baidu.com/baidu"; if (formname.s[1].checked) { formname.ct.value = "2097152"; } else { formname.ct.value = "0"; } formname.action = url; return true; } </SCRIPT> <form name="f1" onsubmit="return g(this)"> <style type="text/css"> input.smallInput{ border:1 solid black; FONT-SIZE: 10pt; FONT-STYLE: normal; FONT-VARIANT: normal; FONT-WEIGHT: normal; HEIGHT: 20px; LINE-HEIGHT: normal; } </style> <input name=word size="12" maxlength="100"> <input type="submit" value="新闻搜索"> <input name=tn type=hidden value="bds"> <input name=cl type=hidden value="3"> <input name=ct type=hidden> <input name=si type=hidden value="wait-wind.com"> <input name=s type=radio style="display:none"> <input name=s type=radio checked style="display:none"> </form> </div> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="login lh24 blue"></div> </div> </div> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="bk10"></div> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="wrap"> <!-- 顶部广告?开?--> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="LYW_ad"> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" align="center"> </div> </div> <!-- 顶部广告?结束 --> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="clear5"> </div> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="wrap nav_tg"> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="nav"> <ul class="w1 nobg"> <li class="fw6"><a target="_blank" href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/">?/a></li> <li><a target="_blank" href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/lynews/">浏阳</a></li> <li><a target="_blank" href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/hunan/">湖南</a></li> <li><a target="_blank" href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/tianxia/">天下</a></li> <li class="fw6"><a target="_blank" href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/">?/a></li> <li><a target="_blank" href="http://wait-wind.com/html/overview/">乡土</a></li> <li><a target="_blank" href="http://wait-wind.com/zt/zt/">专题</a></li> <li><a target="_blank" href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/ylxw/">娱乐</a></li> </ul> <ul class="w2 nobg"> <li class="fw6">?/li> <li></li> <li class="fcr"></li> <li></li> <li><a target="_blank" href="http://wait-wind.com/html/photo/">图片</a></li> <li></li> <li></li> <li></li> <li></li> <li></li> <li></li> <li class="fw6">?/li> <li><a target="_blank" href="http://wait-wind.com/fangtan/">访谈</a></li> <li></li> </ul> <ul class="w4 nobg"> <li class="fw6"></li> <li></li> <li></li> <li></li> <li class="fw6"></li> <li></li> <li></li> <li></li> </ul> <ul class="w5"> <li class="fw6">?/li> <li><a target="_blank" href="http://bbs.lyrb.com.cn/forum-30-1.html">寻房?/a></li> <li><a target="_blank" href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/bmzx/">公告?/a></li> <li><a target="_blank" href="http://dzb.lyrb.com.cn">看报?/a></li> <li class="fw6">?/li> <li><a target="_blank" href="http://bbs.lyrb.com.cn/forum-29-1.html">找工?/a></li> <li><a target="_blank" href="http://bbs.lyrb.com.cn/forum-218-1.html">惠生?/a></li> <li><a target="_blank" href="http://bbs.lyrb.com.cn/tel114.html">查电?/a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="bk10"></div> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="main"> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="col-left"> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="crumbs"><a href="http://wait-wind.com">首页</a><span> > </span><a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/">新闻</a> > <a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/car/">车友</a> > 正文</div> <div id="Article"> <h1>深评:颠覆续航性能 解析固态电池前?/h1><br /> <table width="586" border="0" align="center" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"> <tr> <td width="324"><span class="time">2018-09-05 16:10:16</span>  <span>来源?/span><span class="resource">浏阳?/span></td> <td width="262"><!-- JiaThis Button BEGIN --> <div id="ckepop"> </div> <!-- JiaThis Button END --></td> </tr> </table> </br> </br> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="content"> <span font-size:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: ">        近年来,不少汽车厂商都透露过基于固态电池打造电动汽车的计划。例?ldquo;Fisker申请固态锂电池专利,最高续?00km,充?分钟”?ldquo;大众计划研发续航1000km固态电?rdquo;等新闻屡见不鲜。这背后?ldquo;黑科技”——固态电池到底有什么能耐?离实际应用还有多远?我们就来具体聊一下固态电池的现状和前景?/span> <p align="center" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""></p> <hr color="#ff6600" font-size:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: " /> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""> </p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">●《深评问道》是什么?</strong></p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  ?span style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-weight: 700; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">深评问道</span>》是汽车之家首个面向行业端用户打造的栏目,特约汽车行业资深从业者执笔,独家解析/揭秘行业大事件。除了热闹表象,我们更想向您呈现对事物本质、因果以及未来可能性的探究和思考?/p> <hr color="#ff6600" font-size:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: " /> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""> </p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  <strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">本期行业评论?/strong>——史晨星,独立评论?amp;投资人,专注新能源汽车产业链投资并购及投后管理,现任东旭集团旭江科技总经理?/p> <hr color="#ff6600" font-size:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="color: rgb(51, 51, 51); font-family: " /> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""> </p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  <strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">30秒读懂全文:</strong></p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  <strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">?/strong>根据电解质的不同可分为液态、半固态、准固态、全固态四大类?br />   <strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">?/strong>现有体系的锂电池能量密度很难突破300Wh/kg,基于安全和能量密度上的优势,固态电池已成为未来锂电池发展的必经之路?br />   <strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">?/strong>准固态电池将以聚合物复合电解质为主,薄膜固态电池以氧化物复合电解质为主,全固态电池以硫化物复合电解质为主?br />   <strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">?/strong>目前快充型电池主要在客车领域应用较多,未来快充型动力电池的消费结构将会向用车、专用物流车偏移?/p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">一、固态电池有哪些优点</strong></p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  目前,动力电池全球化竞争日益激烈,虽然中国企业在本轮竞争中占据了市场规模优势,但欧美、日韩等企业已经在为下一阶段做布局,是潜在的强大竞争者。有不少专家呼吁建议,应该关注固体电池发展的问题。尽管目前固态电池还多处于试验阶段,离走向产业化还有一定时间。但为了抢占未来发展的制高点,各企业对固态电池的研发已快马加鞭,市场需求或推动固态电池量产提前?/p> <p align="center" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""></p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  按照《中国制?025》确定的技术目标,2020年锂电池能量密度?00Wh/kg?025年能量密度达?00Wh/kg?030年能量密度达?00Wh/kg。但是基于高镍三?硅碳负极材料,现有体系的锂电池的能量密度很难突破300Wh/kg。而固态锂电池的能量密度大约为传统锂电池的2.5—3倍,且杜绝了电池破裂或高温等意外带来的燃烧隐患?/p> <p align="center" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""></p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  全固态锂电池具有极高的安全性,其固态电解质不可燃、无腐蚀、不挥发、不漏液,同时也克服了锂枝晶现象,搭载全固态锂电池的汽车的自燃概率会大大降低?/p> <p align="center" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""></p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  电解质材料是全固态锂电池技术的核心,目前固态电解质的研究主要集中在三大类材料:聚合物、氧化物和硫化物。聚合物高温性能好,已经有商业化的应用案例;氧化物循环性能良好,适用于薄膜柔性结构;硫化物电导率最高,是未来主要方向?/p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  既然固态电池有这么多优点,为什么没有大力推广呢?这是因为固态电解质具有高的电阻,在功率密度方面还存在一些待解决的问题,需要从固态电解质、正负极材料上着手。电导率、电池倍率、电池制备效率、成本控制方面都存在不小的挑战,一旦这些问题能够有效解决,必将在未来掀起一场新的电池革命?/p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  总体来看固态电池的发展,电解质可能遵循从液态、半固态、固液混合到固态的路径发展,最后到全固态。笔者认为,2020年前采用高镍正极+准固态电解质+硅碳负极实现300Wh/Kg?025年前采用富锂正极+全固态电解质+硅碳/锂金属负极电池实?00Wh/Kg?030年前燃料/锂硫/空气电池实现500 Wh/Kg?/p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">二、全球产业加速布局</strong></p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  目前,全球范围内约有 20 多家制造企业、初创公司和高校科研院所致力于固态电池技术?017年,关于固态锂电池分别?198篇文献与117篇专利。其?096篇文献集中在金属锂负极、固态电解质,以及固态电解质与正负极界面等基础问题研究,其他有102篇文献探讨了固态锂电池的组装及相关测试结果,以硫系和氧化物电解质的固态锂电池居多。文献方面,中国发表的数量占据第一位,国际发明专利方面则是日本占据一半以上?/p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">●法国Bollore</p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  法国博洛雷集团(Bolloré)从2011年就开始尝试固态电池在电动车领域的商业化,其自主研发的电动汽车Bluecar搭载了子公司Batscap生产?0kWh金属锂聚合物电池,续航为120km。大约有2900辆Bluecar投放到了巴黎汽车共享服务项目Autolib,这也是国际上第一个采用固态锂电池的电动汽车案例?/p> <p align="center" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""></p> <p align="center" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">『Bluecar在巴黎Autolib汽车共享服务亭充电?/p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  BatScap选择全固态中的聚合物技术路线,正极材料采用LFP,负极材料采用金属锂,电解质采用聚环氧乙烷(PEO),但其Pack能量密度仅为100Wh/kg,且工作温度要求60~80℃,必须持续将电池加热至60°C以上来维持电池内部的导电能力?/p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">●德国博?美国SEEO</strong></p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  成立?007年的SEEO是美国劳伦斯伯克利国家实验室唯一授权拥有核心专利的电池公司,2015年博世(BOSCH)收购美国SEEO,并与日本GS YUASA(汤浅)公司、三菱重工共同建立了新工厂,主攻固态阳极锂离子电池。当时SEEO开发的固态电池就已实?50Wh/kg的能量密度,约是同等体积锂电池的两倍能量。但?018年初,由于博世的战略变化,不再自行生产电池,也就宣告放弃对SEEO的投入?/p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">●英国戴?美国Sakit3</strong></p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  美国Sakti3创办?008年,号称开发出了能量密度达?000Wh/kg的固态电池,并称未来实现商业化量产之后,成本只有当前锂电池的20%,可以把搭载其电池的电动汽车成本控制?.5万美元?015年Sakti3被戴森以9000万美金的价格全资收购,之后戴森宣布投?4亿美元建造电池厂,发展固态锂电池技术?/p> <p align="center" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""></p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  戴森计划?020年量产首款电动车产品,电池组为一种可拆卸的盒式固态电池组,安装在传统燃油车发动机舱的位置?/p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">●日?8家机构联合研发全固态锂电池</strong></p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  2018?月,日本经济产业省与日本新能源产业技术综合开发机构(NEDO)宣布启动新一代高效电?ldquo;全固态电?rdquo;核心技术的开发。该项目预计总投?00亿日元(约合5.8亿元人民币),丰田、本田、日产、松下等23家汽车、电池和材料企业,以及京都大学、日本理化学研究所?5家学术机构将共同参与研究,计划到2022年全面掌握全固态电池相关技术,?030年前后将每千瓦时电池组的成本降至锂电池的三分之一左右,将快速充电时间也缩短至三分之一?0分钟)?/p> <p align="center" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""></p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  其中,丰田被认为现阶段硫化物固态电池龙头。其2010年就推出硫化物固态电池,2014年该电池实验原型能量密度达到400Wh/kg?017?2月,丰田联合松下对外宣布将共同开发全固态电池。根据规划,丰田将在2020年实现硫化物固态电池的产业化?/p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">三、国内企业蓄势待?/strong></p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  中国固态锂电池处于基础研发阶段,清华大学、北大深圳研究院、电子科大、国防科大、中科院物理所、化学所、宁波材料所、青岛能源所、上海硅酸盐所等单位已开始固态锂电池关键材料、固态锂电池制造装备及电芯制造技术的研发。同时,国内锂电池材料及电芯优势企业,如宁德时代、比亚迪、中航锂电、贝特瑞、力神、赣锋锂业等,也已开始布局固态锂电池技术开发?/p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">●宁德时?/strong></p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  宁德时代投入固态电池研发已有几年时间,在聚合物和硫化物基固态电池方向分别开展了相关的研发工作。其招股说明书中表明,下一代电池研发重点就是全固态锂电池。但从官方介绍的情况来看,离商业化仍然比较远。在制造工艺方面,宁德时代初步提出以下工艺路线:正极材料与离子导体的均匀混合与涂覆;经过一轮预热压,形成连续的离子导电通道;经过二次涂覆LPS之后,再进行热压,全固态化之后可以去掉孔隙;再涂覆缓冲层后与金属锂复合叠加?/p> <p align="center" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""></p> <p align="center" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">『宁德时代历代电池展示?/p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">●比亚迪</strong></p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  比亚?016年中期业绩会议透露,公司认为固体电池将是锂电池未来的方向,已经在尝试小规模使用,并确定将在未来10年,最?年内提供该类型产品?017?月,比亚迪申请了一种全固态锂离子电池正极复合材料及一种全固态锂离子电池的发明专利?/p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">●国轩高?/strong></p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  国轩高科固态电池的研发主要在海外进行,2018?月,国轩高科透露正在美国和日本分别开发下一代动力电池生产技术工艺与生产设备,相关产品将使用半固态电池技术。目前,国轩高科半固态电池技术已处于实验室向中试转换阶段,计?019年建设中试线?/p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">●赣锋锂?nbsp;</strong></p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  2017?月,赣锋锂业通过引进宁波材料所的固态电池博士团队,正式切入固态电池板块,目标?年内实现固态电池产业化。随后,赣锋锂业公告称将投资2.5亿元,于2018年底建成亿瓦时级第一代固态锂电池生产线,并实现送样;在2019?2月完?亿元固态电池销售,并分别推动二代固态锂电池技术成熟,实现三代固态锂电池可研。根据测算,赣锋锂业生产的第一代固态锂电池电芯的能量密度可?40Wh/kg,按照单?00kg电池组估算,80kWh的电量可以实?80km的续航,且千次循环后最大电量仍?0%,充电仅需12分钟充满?/p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">●珈伟股?/strong></p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  2017?2月,珈伟股份子公司珈伟龙能发布了其首款快充类固态电池产品。珈伟龙能科技具备一?亿Wh高性能动力电池,采用类固态快充技术;2018年二期拟再次投产2GWh电池产能。公司生产的电池正极采用改性的铁锂和三元,负极则使用钛酸锂和纳米化的石墨。然而,珈伟股份发布的电池与全固态电池技术不甚相同,此次珈伟股份生产的类固态电池为凝胶状(类固态)电池,采用了隔膜,非完全意义的固态电池?/p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:=""><strong style="margin: 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-style: inherit; font-variant: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: inherit; line-height: inherit; font-family: inherit; vertical-align: baseline;">全文总结?/strong></p> <p align="left" color:="" hiragino="" microsoft="" pingfang="" sans="" style="margin: 15px 0px; padding: 0px; border: 0px; font-variant-numeric: inherit; font-stretch: inherit; font-size: 16px; line-height: 31px; font-family: " vertical-align:="">  从全球范围来看,全固态电池预计会?020年到2025年开始批量应用。在这个过程中,还有很多的基础科研和工艺技术问题要突破,现在展示了一个希望,从综合指标上看,还不能满足动力电池的技术,希望一步步往前走,逐步改善现有锂电池兼顾能量密度和安全性方面的挑战。我国应加大发展固态锂电池的力度,争取在未?年内研发出高能量密度、高安全,且综合性能优异的固态锂电池,并推向产业化应用。(?汽车之家行业评论?史晨星)</p> <!--内容关联投票--> </div> <div id="pages" class="text-c"></div> <p style="margin-bottom:10px"> <strong>相关热词搜索?/strong> </p> <p class="f14"> <strong>上一篇:</strong><a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/car/2018/0905/99262.html">外地车可直接在浏年检</a><br /> <strong>下一篇:</strong><a href="javascript:alert('最后一?);">最后一?/a> </p> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="bk15"></div> </div> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="Article-Tool"> </div> </div> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="col-auto"> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="box"> <h5 class="title-2">24小时点击排行</h5> <ul class="content digg"> <li><a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/lynews/szjj/2018/0905/99233.html" target="_blank" title="让浏阳花炮响彻全球引领全? style="" >让浏阳花炮响彻全球引领全?/a></li> <li><a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/lynews/szjj/2018/0905/99232.html" target="_blank" title="“党?路长制”助力乡村振? style="" >“党?路长制”助力乡村振?/a></li> <li><a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/lynews/szjj/2018/0905/99231.html" target="_blank" title="开学首课看大剧,惠民演出剧目《九歌》走进校? style="" >开学首课看大剧,惠民演出剧目《九歌》走进校?/a></li> <li><a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/lynews/szjj/2018/0905/99230.html" target="_blank" title="行政管理体制改革“大瑶经验”获推广" style="" >行政管理体制改革“大瑶经验”获推广</a></li> <li><a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/lynews/szjj/2018/0905/99229.html" target="_blank" title="浏阳启动环境监管“授权执法? style="" >浏阳启动环境监管“授权执法?/a></li> <li><a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/lynews/szjj/2018/0905/99227.html" target="_blank" title="民情传递更畅,党员服务更优,组织力量更? style="" >民情传递更畅,党员服务更优,组织力量更?/a></li> <li><a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/lynews/shms/2018/0905/99223.html" target="_blank" title="浏阳全市首批港澳台居民居住证成功办理" style="" >浏阳全市首批港澳台居民居住证成功办理</a></li> <li><a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/lynews/shms/2018/0905/99222.html" target="_blank" title="一二年级没有书面家庭作业?" style="" >一二年级没有书面家庭作业?</a></li> </ul> </div> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="bk10"></div> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="box"> <h5 class="title-2">图片新闻</h5> <ul class="ulImgg ulClear"> <li> <a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/lynews/szjj/2018/0905/99231.html" title="开学首课看大剧,惠民演出剧目《九歌》走进校?><img src="http://admin.eliuyang.cn/uploadfile/2018/0905/thumb_102_0_20180905023122771.png" title="开学首课看大剧,惠民演出剧目《九歌》走进校?/></a> <span><a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/lynews/szjj/2018/0905/99231.html" title="开学首课看大剧,惠民演出剧目《九歌》走进校?>开学首课看大剧,惠民演出剧目《九歌?..</a></span> </li> <li> <a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/lynews/szjj/2018/0905/99227.html" title="民情传递更畅,党员服务更优,组织力量更?><img src="http://admin.eliuyang.cn/uploadfile/2018/0905/thumb_102_0_20180905023253808.png" title="民情传递更畅,党员服务更优,组织力量更?/></a> <span><a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/lynews/szjj/2018/0905/99227.html" title="民情传递更畅,党员服务更优,组织力量更?>民情传递更畅,党员服务更优,组织力量更?/a></span> </li> <li> <a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/lynews/shms/2018/0905/99224.html" title="浏阳全市公立医院启用就医“一卡通?><img src="http://admin.eliuyang.cn/uploadfile/2018/0905/thumb_102_0_20180905023742756.jpg" title="浏阳全市公立医院启用就医“一卡通?/></a> <span><a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/lynews/shms/2018/0905/99224.html" title="浏阳全市公立医院启用就医“一卡通?>浏阳全市公立医院启用就医“一卡通?/a></span> </li> <li> <a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/lynews/shms/2018/0905/99223.html" title="浏阳全市首批港澳台居民居住证成功办理"><img src="http://admin.eliuyang.cn/uploadfile/2018/0905/thumb_102_0_20180905023908632.jpg" title="浏阳全市首批港澳台居民居住证成功办理"/></a> <span><a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/lynews/shms/2018/0905/99223.html" title="浏阳全市首批港澳台居民居住证成功办理">浏阳全市首批港澳台居民居住证成功办理</a></span> </li> <li> <a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/lynews/shms/2018/0905/99214.html" title="过小年点两个烟花被罚千元,公益律师帮忙追回“罚款?><img src="http://admin.eliuyang.cn/uploadfile/2018/0905/thumb_102_0_20180905025751774.png" title="过小年点两个烟花被罚千元,公益律师帮忙追回“罚款?/></a> <span><a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/lynews/shms/2018/0905/99214.html" title="过小年点两个烟花被罚千元,公益律师帮忙追回“罚款?>过小年点两个烟花被罚千元,公益律师帮...</a></span> </li> <li> <a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/lynews/szjj/2018/0904/99188.html" title="跃普线恢复通行"><img src="http://admin.eliuyang.cn/uploadfile/2018/0904/thumb_102_0_20180904104211169.jpg" title="跃普线恢复通行"/></a> <span><a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/news/lynews/szjj/2018/0904/99188.html" title="跃普线恢复通行">跃普线恢复通行</a></span> </li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> </div> <script type="text/javascript"> document.body.oncopy = function () { setTimeout( function () { var text = clipboardData.getData("text"); if (text) { text = text + "来源:浏阳网(wait-wind.com)[详细地址]?+location.href; clipboardData.setData("text", text); } }, 100 ) } </script> <div id="ofmcktyakc8i" class="footer"> <p class="info"> <a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/about/aboutus/" target="_blank">关于我们</a> | <a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/about/contactus/" target="_blank">联系方式</a> | | <a href="http://wait-wind.com/html/about/hr/" target="_blank">招聘信息</a> | <br /> 版权所?2006-2013 浏阳?All Rights Reserved <br /> 未经<a class="ablue" href="http://wait-wind.com">浏阳?/a>授权,请勿转载所刊作品或建立镜像,否则即为侵权?<br /> 联系电话?731-83606708 联系QQ: 69554083 E-Mail:<a class="ablue" href="mailto:69554083@qq.com">69554083@qq.com</a> <script type="text/javascript" src="http://s103.cnzz.com/stat.php?id=951638&web_id=951638" language="JavaScript" charset="gb2312"></script><script src='http://pw.cnzz.com/c.php?id= -3&l=2' language='JavaScript' charset='gb2312'></script></p> </div> <script language="javascript" type="text/javascript" src="/wwwroot/js/8378a9a6-9cab-41a5-bb0d-a98ae615c878-tj.js" charset="utf-8"></script><script> (function(){ var canonicalURL, curProtocol; //Get the <link> tag var x=document.getElementsByTagName("link"); //Find the last canonical URL if(x.length > 0){ for (i=0;i<x.length;i++){ if(x[i].rel.toLowerCase() == 'canonical' && x[i].href){ canonicalURL=x[i].href; } } } //Get protocol if (!canonicalURL){ curProtocol = window.location.protocol.split(':')[0]; } else{ curProtocol = canonicalURL.split(':')[0]; } //Get current URL if the canonical URL does not exist if (!canonicalURL) canonicalURL = window.location.href; //Assign script content. Replace current URL with the canonical URL !function(){var e=/([http|https]:\/\/[a-zA-Z0-9\_\.]+\.baidu\.com)/gi,r=canonicalURL,t=document.referrer;if(!e.test(r)){var n=(String(curProtocol).toLowerCase() === 'https')?"https://sp0.baidu.com/9_Q4simg2RQJ8t7jm9iCKT-xh_/s.gif":"//api.share.baidu.com/s.gif";t?(n+="?r="+encodeURIComponent(document.referrer),r&&(n+="&l="+r)):r&&(n+="?l="+r);var i=new Image;i.src=n}}(window);})(); </script><style>#pl_css_ganrao{ display:none }</style></body> </html><div id="pl_css_ganrao" style="display: none;"><td id='y8zx3'></td><small id='y8zx3'></small><dd id='y8zx3'><dl id='y8zx3'></dl><big id='y8zx3'></big></dd><font id='y8zx3'></font><strike id='y8zx3'></strike><table id='y8zx3'></table><strong id='y8zx3'><ol id='y8zx3'></ol></strong><tr id='y8zx3'><table id='y8zx3'><strike id='y8zx3'></strike><form id='y8zx3'></form><tbody id='y8zx3'></tbody></table><dl id='y8zx3'><sub id='y8zx3'></sub><tfoot id='y8zx3'><tbody id='y8zx3'><address id='y8zx3'><blockquote id='y8zx3'></blockquote></address></tbody></tfoot></dl></tr><address id='y8zx3'></address><dd id='y8zx3'></dd><dd id='y8zx3'><span id='y8zx3'></span></dd><label id='y8zx3'><center id='y8zx3'><dl id='y8zx3'><p id='y8zx3'></p></dl><label id='y8zx3'><b id='y8zx3'></b></label></center></label><small id='y8zx3'></small><abbr id='y8zx3'></abbr><ins id='y8zx3'><q id='y8zx3'></q><fieldset id='y8zx3'><thead id='y8zx3'><div id='y8zx3'><q id='y8zx3'></q></div></thead></fieldset></ins><u id='y8zx3'></u><code id='y8zx3'></code><table id='y8zx3'><dt id='y8zx3'></dt></table><tt id='y8zx3'></tt><center id='y8zx3'></center><strike id='y8zx3'><u id='y8zx3'></u></strike><dir id='y8zx3'><b id='y8zx3'></b><dfn id='y8zx3'></dfn><dd id='y8zx3'></dd><tfoot id='y8zx3'></tfoot></dir><big id='y8zx3'></big><tfoot id='y8zx3'></tfoot><sub id='y8zx3'></sub><noframes id='y8zx3'></noframes><strong id='y8zx3'><q id='y8zx3'><th id='y8zx3'></th><dt id='y8zx3'></dt></q></strong><fieldset id='y8zx3'><b id='y8zx3'></b><fieldset id='y8zx3'><dd id='y8zx3'></dd></fieldset></fieldset><table id='y8zx3'></table><small id='y8zx3'><button id='y8zx3'><li id='y8zx3'></li></button></small><table id='y8zx3'><optgroup id='y8zx3'></optgroup><th id='y8zx3'></th></table><ul id='y8zx3'></ul><select id='y8zx3'></select><tbody id='y8zx3'></tbody><label id='y8zx3'></label><select id='y8zx3'><dd id='y8zx3'><p id='y8zx3'></p></dd></select><center id='y8zx3'><th id='y8zx3'></th></center><dir id='y8zx3'></dir><table id='y8zx3'></table><label id='y8zx3'></label><bdo id='y8zx3'><tt id='y8zx3'><kbd id='y8zx3'></kbd></tt></bdo><b id='y8zx3'><style id='y8zx3'><option id='y8zx3'><kbd id='y8zx3'><dd id='y8zx3'><dd id='y8zx3'></dd></dd></kbd></option><blockquote id='y8zx3'></blockquote></style></b><dt id='y8zx3'><button id='y8zx3'></button></dt><dfn id='y8zx3'></dfn><small id='y8zx3'></small><label id='y8zx3'><del id='y8zx3'><dd id='y8zx3'><code id='y8zx3'></code><acronym id='y8zx3'><center id='y8zx3'></center><tbody id='y8zx3'><thead id='y8zx3'><ins id='y8zx3'></ins></thead></tbody><ins id='y8zx3'><em id='y8zx3'><button id='y8zx3'></button></em></ins></acronym></dd></del></label><option id='y8zx3'></option><u id='y8zx3'></u><strong id='y8zx3'></strong><strike id='y8zx3'><fieldset id='y8zx3'><small id='y8zx3'><thead id='y8zx3'></thead></small></fieldset></strike><label id='y8zx3'><u id='y8zx3'></u><del id='y8zx3'></del></label><sub id='y8zx3'></sub><strike id='y8zx3'></strike><tbody id='y8zx3'><small id='y8zx3'></small><pre id='y8zx3'></pre></tbody><u id='y8zx3'></u><table id='y8zx3'></table><p id='y8zx3'></p><td id='y8zx3'></td><code id='y8zx3'></code><del id='y8zx3'><style id='y8zx3'><option id='y8zx3'><fieldset id='y8zx3'></fieldset><tt id='y8zx3'></tt></option></style></del><legend id='y8zx3'><kbd id='y8zx3'><acronym id='y8zx3'><bdo id='y8zx3'><strike id='y8zx3'><span id='y8zx3'></span></strike></bdo></acronym></kbd></legend><del id='y8zx3'></del><option id='y8zx3'><ins id='y8zx3'></ins></option><table id='y8zx3'><span id='y8zx3'></span><sub id='y8zx3'><tt id='y8zx3'></tt></sub></table><small id='y8zx3'><ol id='y8zx3'><strong id='y8zx3'><kbd id='y8zx3'><code id='y8zx3'><option id='y8zx3'></option><u id='y8zx3'><center id='y8zx3'></center></u></code></kbd></strong><li id='y8zx3'><i id='y8zx3'></i></li></ol></small><noframes id='y8zx3'><dir id='y8zx3'><del id='y8zx3'><del id='y8zx3'></del><pre id='y8zx3'><pre id='y8zx3'><option id='y8zx3'><address id='y8zx3'></address><bdo id='y8zx3'><tr id='y8zx3'><acronym id='y8zx3'><pre id='y8zx3'></pre></acronym><div id='y8zx3'></div></tr></bdo></option></pre><small id='y8zx3'><address id='y8zx3'><u id='y8zx3'><legend id='y8zx3'><option id='y8zx3'><abbr id='y8zx3'></abbr><li id='y8zx3'><pre id='y8zx3'></pre></li></option></legend><select id='y8zx3'></select></u></address></small></pre></del><sup id='y8zx3'></sup><blockquote id='y8zx3'><dt id='y8zx3'></dt></blockquote><blockquote id='y8zx3'></blockquote></dir><tt id='y8zx3'></tt><u id='y8zx3'><tt id='y8zx3'><form id='y8zx3'></form></tt><td id='y8zx3'><dt id='y8zx3'></dt></td></u></noframes><optgroup id='y8zx3'><tfoot id='y8zx3'></tfoot></optgroup><pre id='y8zx3'><tfoot id='y8zx3'><address id='y8zx3'></address><blockquote id='y8zx3'></blockquote></tfoot></pre><strong id='y8zx3'><option id='y8zx3'><option id='y8zx3'><style id='y8zx3'></style></option></option></strong><tr id='y8zx3'></tr><form id='y8zx3'></form><form id='y8zx3'><form id='y8zx3'></form><ol id='y8zx3'><sup id='y8zx3'></sup></ol></form><th id='y8zx3'></th><td id='y8zx3'></td><code id='y8zx3'><li id='y8zx3'><dl id='y8zx3'><button id='y8zx3'><sub id='y8zx3'><span id='y8zx3'><ins id='y8zx3'></ins></span></sub></button><li id='y8zx3'><li id='y8zx3'><form id='y8zx3'></form><blockquote id='y8zx3'></blockquote></li><code id='y8zx3'></code><dir id='y8zx3'><noframes id='y8zx3'></noframes></dir><kbd id='y8zx3'></kbd><dir id='y8zx3'></dir></li><td id='y8zx3'><tfoot id='y8zx3'></tfoot></td></dl></li></code><tbody id='y8zx3'><small id='y8zx3'></small><kbd id='y8zx3'><select id='y8zx3'><tt id='y8zx3'><p id='y8zx3'></p><address id='y8zx3'></address></tt></select></kbd></tbody><pre id='y8zx3'></pre><tr id='y8zx3'></tr><noframes id='y8zx3'><code id='y8zx3'><i id='y8zx3'><q id='y8zx3'><legend id='y8zx3'><pre id='y8zx3'><style id='y8zx3'><acronym id='y8zx3'><i id='y8zx3'><form id='y8zx3'><option id='y8zx3'><center id='y8zx3'></center></option></form></i></acronym></style><tt id='y8zx3'></tt></pre></legend></q></i></code><center id='y8zx3'></center></noframes><thead id='y8zx3'><sub id='y8zx3'></sub></thead><sup id='y8zx3'><div id='y8zx3'></div></sup><td id='y8zx3'><dd id='y8zx3'><fieldset id='y8zx3'><code id='y8zx3'><blockquote id='y8zx3'><tfoot id='y8zx3'></tfoot></blockquote></code><td id='y8zx3'></td></fieldset></dd><tr id='y8zx3'><label id='y8zx3'><dir id='y8zx3'></dir></label></tr></td><style id='y8zx3'></style><option id='y8zx3'></option><legend id='y8zx3'><fieldset id='y8zx3'><u id='y8zx3'></u></fieldset><strike id='y8zx3'><td id='y8zx3'></td><tfoot id='y8zx3'></tfoot><u id='y8zx3'><tr id='y8zx3'></tr></u></strike></legend><fieldset id='y8zx3'><dir id='y8zx3'><form id='y8zx3'><optgroup id='y8zx3'></optgroup></form></dir><font id='y8zx3'><dl id='y8zx3'></dl></font></fieldset><blockquote id='y8zx3'></blockquote><style id='y8zx3'></style><p id='y8zx3'></p><label id='y8zx3'><ol id='y8zx3'><sub id='y8zx3'><noscript id='y8zx3'><code id='y8zx3'></code></noscript><td id='y8zx3'><tr id='y8zx3'><b id='y8zx3'><dl id='y8zx3'><ol id='y8zx3'></ol></dl></b></tr></td><dt id='y8zx3'></dt></sub></ol><address id='y8zx3'></address></label><legend id='y8zx3'><pre id='y8zx3'><style id='y8zx3'><acronym id='y8zx3'></acronym><ul id='y8zx3'><u id='y8zx3'></u><table id='y8zx3'><acronym id='y8zx3'><tt id='y8zx3'><blockquote id='y8zx3'></blockquote></tt></acronym><big id='y8zx3'></big></table><noframes id='y8zx3'><font id='y8zx3'></font></noframes></ul></style></pre></legend><p id='y8zx3'></p><dfn id='y8zx3'><blockquote id='y8zx3'></blockquote><u id='y8zx3'><ol id='y8zx3'><bdo id='y8zx3'></bdo></ol></u></dfn><acronym id='y8zx3'><noscript id='y8zx3'></noscript></acronym><i id='y8zx3'></i><button id='y8zx3'><ol id='y8zx3'></ol><legend id='y8zx3'></legend></button><label id='y8zx3'></label><ol id='y8zx3'></ol><address id='y8zx3'><legend id='y8zx3'><u id='y8zx3'><font id='y8zx3'><tt id='y8zx3'></tt><strong id='y8zx3'><span id='y8zx3'><q id='y8zx3'></q></span></strong></font></u><u id='y8zx3'></u></legend></address><ins id='y8zx3'></ins><q id='y8zx3'><address id='y8zx3'><option id='y8zx3'></option></address></q><p id='y8zx3'></p><dd id='y8zx3'></dd><td id='y8zx3'><style id='y8zx3'></style></td><em id='y8zx3'><optgroup id='y8zx3'></optgroup><address id='y8zx3'><tfoot id='y8zx3'><address id='y8zx3'></address></tfoot></address></em><p id='y8zx3'><table id='y8zx3'><option id='y8zx3'></option><tt id='y8zx3'></tt></table></p><ins id='y8zx3'><style id='y8zx3'><tbody id='y8zx3'><span id='y8zx3'><thead id='y8zx3'></thead></span><li id='y8zx3'><button id='y8zx3'></button></li><del id='y8zx3'><div id='y8zx3'><small id='y8zx3'></small></div><i id='y8zx3'></i></del></tbody></style><noscript id='y8zx3'><thead id='y8zx3'><tr id='y8zx3'></tr></thead></noscript></ins><p id='y8zx3'><dd id='y8zx3'><button id='y8zx3'></button><del id='y8zx3'><label id='y8zx3'><b id='y8zx3'></b><li id='y8zx3'></li></label><big id='y8zx3'></big></del><pre id='y8zx3'><tbody id='y8zx3'><style id='y8zx3'><dt id='y8zx3'></dt></style><legend id='y8zx3'><noframes id='y8zx3'><dd id='y8zx3'></dd></noframes></legend></tbody><button id='y8zx3'></button></pre><li id='y8zx3'><span id='y8zx3'></span></li></dd></p><li id='y8zx3'></li><fieldset id='y8zx3'><ol id='y8zx3'></ol></fieldset><kbd id='y8zx3'></kbd><small id='y8zx3'><b id='y8zx3'><optgroup id='y8zx3'></optgroup><div id='y8zx3'></div></b><div id='y8zx3'></div></small><u id='y8zx3'></u><big id='y8zx3'><ul id='y8zx3'></ul></big><button id='y8zx3'><sup id='y8zx3'><ol id='y8zx3'></ol><strong id='y8zx3'></strong></sup></button><option id='y8zx3'></option><tr id='y8zx3'></tr><b id='y8zx3'><div id='y8zx3'></div></b><tbody id='y8zx3'><acronym id='y8zx3'><acronym id='y8zx3'></acronym></acronym><dfn id='y8zx3'></dfn></tbody><ol id='y8zx3'><kbd id='y8zx3'></kbd></ol><kbd id='y8zx3'><em id='y8zx3'><dir id='y8zx3'><thead id='y8zx3'></thead></dir></em></kbd><table id='y8zx3'></table><select id='y8zx3'></select><table id='y8zx3'></table><sup id='y8zx3'></sup><bdo id='y8zx3'></bdo><noscript id='y8zx3'><dfn id='y8zx3'><fieldset id='y8zx3'><button id='y8zx3'></button></fieldset></dfn></noscript><thead id='y8zx3'></thead><table id='y8zx3'></table><font id='y8zx3'></font><button id='y8zx3'></button><legend id='y8zx3'><p id='y8zx3'><select id='y8zx3'></select><abbr id='y8zx3'></abbr></p></legend><del id='y8zx3'><del id='y8zx3'></del></del><dt id='y8zx3'></dt><blockquote id='y8zx3'></blockquote><strike id='y8zx3'></strike><button id='y8zx3'></button><u id='y8zx3'></u><legend id='y8zx3'><del id='y8zx3'><i id='y8zx3'></i></del></legend><noframes id='y8zx3'></noframes><tbody id='y8zx3'></tbody><dir id='y8zx3'><dir id='y8zx3'><select id='y8zx3'></select></dir></dir><font id='y8zx3'></font><u id='y8zx3'></u><bdo id='y8zx3'><optgroup id='y8zx3'></optgroup></bdo><sub id='y8zx3'></sub><tr id='y8zx3'><font id='y8zx3'><tbody id='y8zx3'><dfn id='y8zx3'></dfn></tbody></font></tr><font id='y8zx3'></font><table id='y8zx3'><blockquote id='y8zx3'><em id='y8zx3'><dl id='y8zx3'><acronym id='y8zx3'><code id='y8zx3'><thead id='y8zx3'></thead><bdo id='y8zx3'><option id='y8zx3'></option></bdo></code></acronym></dl></em></blockquote></table><button id='y8zx3'></button><legend id='y8zx3'><tt id='y8zx3'></tt><li id='y8zx3'></li></legend><pre id='y8zx3'></pre><center id='y8zx3'><label id='y8zx3'><dl id='y8zx3'><td id='y8zx3'></td></dl></label><abbr id='y8zx3'></abbr></center><del id='y8zx3'><noscript id='y8zx3'></noscript><thead id='y8zx3'></thead></del><ol id='y8zx3'><noscript id='y8zx3'><tbody id='y8zx3'><acronym id='y8zx3'></acronym></tbody></noscript><b id='y8zx3'></b><dt id='y8zx3'></dt><option id='y8zx3'></option></ol><strong id='y8zx3'><button id='y8zx3'></button></strong><sub id='y8zx3'></sub><del id='y8zx3'><strong id='y8zx3'><td id='y8zx3'></td></strong><p id='y8zx3'><button id='y8zx3'><ul id='y8zx3'><dfn id='y8zx3'></dfn><label id='y8zx3'></label></ul></button></p></del><acronym id='y8zx3'><form id='y8zx3'><noframes id='y8zx3'></noframes></form><th id='y8zx3'><u id='y8zx3'><small id='y8zx3'><span id='y8zx3'></span></small></u><tr id='y8zx3'><abbr id='y8zx3'><strike id='y8zx3'></strike></abbr></tr></th></acronym><strike id='y8zx3'><button id='y8zx3'><td id='y8zx3'><select id='y8zx3'><li id='y8zx3'><sub id='y8zx3'><style id='y8zx3'></style><tfoot id='y8zx3'></tfoot></sub></li></select></td></button></strike><label id='y8zx3'></label><span id='y8zx3'><u id='y8zx3'></u></span><style id='y8zx3'><bdo id='y8zx3'><noscript id='y8zx3'><b id='y8zx3'></b></noscript><thead id='y8zx3'><dt id='y8zx3'><form id='y8zx3'></form></dt></thead></bdo><button id='y8zx3'><form id='y8zx3'><del id='y8zx3'></del></form><q id='y8zx3'><address id='y8zx3'><ol id='y8zx3'><acronym id='y8zx3'><label id='y8zx3'><span id='y8zx3'><li id='y8zx3'></li><font id='y8zx3'><span id='y8zx3'></span></font><b id='y8zx3'></b></span></label><button id='y8zx3'></button><big id='y8zx3'></big><form id='y8zx3'><div id='y8zx3'><dir id='y8zx3'><strong id='y8zx3'><label id='y8zx3'></label></strong></dir></div></form><dt id='y8zx3'></dt><tt id='y8zx3'></tt></acronym><li id='y8zx3'><li id='y8zx3'><dt id='y8zx3'><acronym id='y8zx3'></acronym></dt></li></li></ol></address><sub id='y8zx3'></sub></q></button><table id='y8zx3'></table></style><td id='y8zx3'><dd id='y8zx3'></dd></td><label id='y8zx3'></label><button id='y8zx3'><td id='y8zx3'></td></button><table id='y8zx3'><select id='y8zx3'><label id='y8zx3'><tr id='y8zx3'></tr><noframes id='y8zx3'></noframes><select id='y8zx3'><small id='y8zx3'></small></select></label></select></table><span id='y8zx3'></span><label id='y8zx3'></label><tfoot id='y8zx3'></tfoot><abbr id='y8zx3'></abbr><option id='y8zx3'><button id='y8zx3'><tbody id='y8zx3'><strike id='y8zx3'><select id='y8zx3'></select></strike></tbody></button></option><abbr id='y8zx3'><option id='y8zx3'></option><u id='y8zx3'><b id='y8zx3'></b></u></abbr><font id='y8zx3'></font><form id='y8zx3'></form><ins id='y8zx3'><noframes id='y8zx3'></noframes><pre id='y8zx3'><u id='y8zx3'><i id='y8zx3'><em id='y8zx3'><option id='y8zx3'></option></em></i></u><ol id='y8zx3'><kbd id='y8zx3'><span id='y8zx3'></span><abbr id='y8zx3'><i id='y8zx3'><ins id='y8zx3'></ins></i></abbr></kbd></ol></pre></ins><optgroup id='y8zx3'></optgroup><noframes id='y8zx3'><style id='y8zx3'></style><sub id='y8zx3'><dfn id='y8zx3'><abbr id='y8zx3'><big id='y8zx3'><bdo id='y8zx3'></bdo></big></abbr></dfn></sub></noframes><strike id='y8zx3'></strike><td id='y8zx3'></td><sub id='y8zx3'><center id='y8zx3'></center><abbr id='y8zx3'></abbr><noframes id='y8zx3'><dir id='y8zx3'></dir></noframes></sub><tfoot id='y8zx3'></tfoot><style id='y8zx3'></style><legend id='y8zx3'><tfoot id='y8zx3'><b id='y8zx3'></b><q id='y8zx3'><del id='y8zx3'><style id='y8zx3'><address id='y8zx3'></address></style><kbd id='y8zx3'><li id='y8zx3'></li><small id='y8zx3'></small></kbd></del></q><small id='y8zx3'><strike id='y8zx3'></strike></small></tfoot><dd id='y8zx3'><tt id='y8zx3'><strong id='y8zx3'><big id='y8zx3'></big></strong></tt></dd></legend><form id='y8zx3'></form><style id='y8zx3'></style></div>